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Name of Article:
An Analysis of the Distribution of Benefits for Protecting Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests 
Title of Book/Journal:
Society & Natural Resources 
Type:
Article 
English Translation:
 
Publication Date:
March 1999     
Author(s):
Et al:
R.A. Kramer
T.P. Holmes
 Editor(s):
 
Volume:
12 
Issue: 2
Pages: 93 - 106  
Corporate Author:
 
Publisher:
   
EPA Number:
 
Other Number:
   
Keyword(s):
EDUCATION
LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES
NATURAL RESOURCES-FORESTS
Comments:
 
 
 
 
    
 
Annotation:
The authors test the hypothesis that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The hypothesis is tested in an analysis of the decline of southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. The authors calculate willingness-to-pay measures for forest protection through a contingent valuation survey. In an assessment of willingness to pay scaled by income, the authors found that income has a negative effect, implying that as income increases, willingness to pay as a percentage of income decreases. Education weakly influences willingness to pay in this assessment. Given the substantial existence and bequest values associated with these forests, these results substantiate the authors' rejection of the hypothesis that conserving this unique ecosystem only benefits the wealthy and better educated.
 
 
       
 
 
 

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